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Niacin
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Niacin (a vitamin PP, eng. pellagra preventing) – a group of compounds, the most important specimens of which are nicotine acid (pyryidyn-3-carbonic acid) and nicotinamide having the same vitamin activity.

The biological role of the nicotine acid and nicotinamide takes shape of their participation in construction of the nicotinamide co-ferments: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). NAD and NADP are the co-ferments of many (more than 100) dehydrogenases functioning on the elementary stages of biological oxidation of various compounds: carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, etc. The ferments of glycolysis, a pentose phosphate way of carbohydrate oxidation, a cycle of three-carbon acids are among them.

When NAD• N2 (a restored form of NAD) receives a proton and electron from the oxidizing substrate it passes it further to the flavine oxidases, the prosthetic group (that are the protons and electrons which are accepted by it) are derivatives of the vitamins B2 – FAD or FMN. Thus, the consecutive participation of NAD-dependent dehydrogenases and flavine oxidases in the processes of tissue respiration is realized, in this way synergism of nicotine acid and riboflavin becomes apparent.

B in contrast to NAD• N2 is a restored form of NADP• N2. It serves as a source of the protons and the electrons not for their transfer along the way of cell respiration to oxygen but for the use of numerous restoring reactions which occur in the organism including metabolism of mineral substances.

Nicotine acid and nicotine amid which go to food are absorbed in the fundal part of the stomach and in the small intestine, mainly owing to diffusion and particularly by the way of active transport. Both of the vitamins easily get through the cell membranes in contrast to NAD and NADP for which the cell capsule is practically impenetrable. Niacin easily gets through a placenta. More than 20% of niacin which mother consumes with food goes to breast milk. Nicotine acid which is not connected in the form of hydrogenases undergoes a number of transformations. In the human’s organism this process consists in methylation of amide nicotine acid with its transformation to N1 – methyl nicotine amide, the aqueous solutions of which gives bright blue-violet fluorescence. In the urine it particularly appears in the form of dehydro-derivatives which fluoresces blue colour. N1 – methyl nicotine amide is one of the important products of secretion of nicotine acid with the urine. According to the information of different authors 20-40% of amide of nicotine acide which was consumed with food exudes in the human’s organism. In the norm there are exuded 7-12 mg/day and 0, 4 – 0, 5 mg an hour in the urine on am empty stomach. By this insufficiency of the albumen in nutrition can cause the development of symptoms of insufficiency of nicotine acid even by sufficient quantity of it in food. The certain quantity of N1 – methyl nicotine amid oxidizes in N1 – methyl nicotine amid-6-pyrydon. From 40% to 50% of taken amide of nicotine acid exude with the urine in this form.

On the grounds of a number of the researches of the previous years there is an opinion that deficiency in the vitamin in the organism appears by the influence of a complex of different factors: a low content of nicotine acid in food, insufficient content of tryptophan, low consumption of albumen with unbalanced composition of amine acids and at last presence of nicotine acid in an unassimilable form in the cereal products.

The main manifestation of hexogen insufficiency of nicotine acid in the human’s organism is pellagra. The acute form of pellagra is taking hard and is accompanied with the symptoms from the side of the central nervous system and psychics (encephalopathy). It was determined that absence of nicotine acid in the food allowance causes the deficiency in pyridine nucleotides in the central nervous system. After this in the result of accumulation of toxic metabolites a course of biochemical reactions in neurons is broken.

As for the sporadic cases of the illness it is found especially often in the organisms of psychically sick people that had wrong nourishment. It is possible that many acute and symptomatic psychosises in the dementive and depressive form are the consequence of the deficiency in nicotine acid.

Endogenous, secondary deficiency in nicotine acid is to be observed by the inflammatory-dystrophic diseases of the alimentary canal, neuritises, allergic dermatitises, lead, benzene and thallium poisoning.

The nicotine acid and nicotine amid not only get with food but they also can form in the organism owing to endogenous tryptophan synthesis. During this process 1 mg on nicotine acid form from 60 mg of L-tryptophan. In accordance with this the need of human (and of animals) is accepted to express in niacin equivalents: 1 niacin equivalent is like 1 mg of nicotine acid or 60 mg of L-tryptophan.

In the home recommendation the niacin need makes: for men (depends on power imputs) –16-28 mg of niacin-equivalents, from women correspondingly – 14-20; the need of pregnant women increases by 2, of nursing mothers – by 6. For aged and senile men this value makes 18-15, for women – 16-13 mg of niacin-equivalents.

Among the factors which influence on the need of nicotine acid pregnancy and breast-feeding, the diseases of an alimentary canal (especially diarrhea), different infections (mainly dysentery, hepatitis, typhus), nervous-mental illnesses, intoxications are of great importance. The need of nicotine acid increases by taking medicines such as sulfanilamide preparations, antibiotics, ftivazide and tubaside. The additional taking of niacin is also necessary for people who work in the conditions of heightened nervous-mental stress.

Among doctors this vitamin is called a medicine.

Presence of niacin in “Mixtura indigoticus iodum” is very important.

Practically it helps smoothly to a work of amber acid and iodine in the complex, taking into account biological giving of iodine to a thyroid gland is realized by deiodinase and amber acid participates in the cycle of three-carbon acids where their biological activities cross with niacin. The work of the central nervous system depends on thyroxin T4 and influence of niacin on the composition is great.

The penetration of niacin through the placenta improves the main destination of thyroxin T4 in forming of cerebral cortex of an embryo.

The complex influence of “Mixtura indigoticus iodum” on the organism is a main component of the right biological balance and existence of a human.

 

 
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